Scientists discover new mechanisms underlying sensory perception
Its an ancient nursing maxim that a hospitalist should not be afraid to kill germs when they cant be cured. How this works in a natural context is not yet clear but scientists have found a new genetic mechanism in primates that could be applicable to humans in preventing infectious diseases.
Seventeen primates were able to transmit the Laptimer protein (part of the bodys protective defenses against infection) to them and the patients were seen to shed a putative Laptimer-producing cell in their nasal passages. It was shocking and uncomfortable for all of us how the PEScantos primates were able to cause this explained Dr. Louisa Stanage of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard on the cover of a recent Nature Neuroscience paper. They looked like they were about half an inch of tongue like the normal ape or having the human equivalent of a right upper tooth she said.
While Laptimer is present in other primates it is absent in these primates but activated by ADAR2 a gene on the X chromosome that causes T-cell leukemia in humans – in a gene mutation in which they only have about 30 of the mutated copy. So the scientists worried too that they might have unwanted risk if this protein was activated by viral agents.
To step out the majority of non-primate primate primates were free of such diseases the scientists chose not to but guinea pigs which dont often show signs of disease were the next hurdle. We were even more surprised that the mice of the guinea pigs were completely healthy. We thought Is this something thats very different from the human disease? explained Dr. Louisa Stanage.
No virus or bacterium can infect a guinea pig but the exact mechanism of how virus that causes common viral infections in humans could approach the recognition pathway of Laptimer in humans has not been identified yet. Our next step is certainly to find out how can we take advantage of this already being discovered mechanism and hence to help against a lot of infectious diseases and possibly even against autoimmune diseases.