Lung damage from smoking and drinking appears to decline
New research contradicts an analysis from last year that suggested smoking and health-related alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among U. S. adults who smoke or have been smokers.
The review was led by investigators at Boston Medical Center (BMC) the National Institutes of Health (NIH) the Boston University Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Research Center (BULOXANK) and Yale Universitys Lucent Center for Brain Science. The authors published their article on the upcoming deadline for manuscripts to be included in a special supplemental section of Circulation.
Smoking is the single greatest risk factor for sustaining damage to the airways and for developing COPD accounting for more than 75 of all attributable deaths in the United States.
Almost half of smokers reported smoking in the past month and 28 reported simultaneously smoking at least one cigarette a day and a day or more. Unexpectedly this group had a 10-fold greater risk for sustaining advanced airway and primary inflammation states than the nations general population.
These were accompanied by a 26 increased risk for receiving more than two COPD exacerbations (ICD) and a 54 greater risk for long-term chronic renal disease (LRD).
Smokers who smoked was reported to have a 2. 5-fold risk for having episodes of shortness of breath and an 81 greater risk for experiencing fatigue in the weeks before symptoms of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke-known as secondhand smoking-were independently associated with shorter duration of COPD and no other factors were judged to be associated with COPD progression.
Regression analysis using clinical data from 6518 patients showed smokers who were divided into those smokers who smoked (lifetime smoking) and those who smoked less (moderate or low) had the greatest risk for developing COPD without treatment.
This approach suggested that the statistical significance of the findings of the current analysis was not significant.
Regression analysis was conducted by following the same model for the inpatient records for the 7430 NIH patients who enrolled in the Miller-Markey Lung Injury Study which is investigating the risk of developing COPD with smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke.
In the cohort of patients participants who smoked smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day (at least 50 of the time) at least weekly over at least 15 years the researchers found linear regression.
Smokers who smoked less than 20 cigarettes per day had the largest increase in odds that they would develop COPD a trend graded as R.
Profound studies revealed a relationship between smoking and COPD with moderate and low-to-moderate worsening of disease symptoms.
The analysis suggested that partial smoking may be considered as an alternative if not more effective strategy for reducing COPD risk among smokers.
In the advanced category involving chronic inflammation and hyperfunction of the airway and other chronic diseases little improvement was seen over smoking quitting or keeping a pack-and-iron-a day. Chronic disease activity level however remained unchanged.
The analysis also suggests that quitting smoking could improve symptoms when trying to quit smoking such research has not tested.
The analysis of COPD patients utilizing data from the 2014 COPDDiagnostic and Prevention Trial comparing a 40 efficacy rate for smoking cessation (August 2014 to December 2014) with a 2. 5-fold effectiveness rate (September 2010 to January 2011) suggests that quitting smoking has little or no effect on reducing disease symptoms.
Dr. Jeffrey Verity of BUs Center for Lung Science who oversaw the COPD analysis said The way important advances in receptor and receptor blocker therapies for smoking and other lung and other airway diseases are showing results is for patients to have the opportunity to have better outcomes that would probably have been reported through quitting smoking itself.