Long-term monoclonal antibody treatment prevents embryos from expressing certain genes in early infancy
A long-term antibody treatment of a healthy mother with toxoplasmosis (a neglected tropical disease) prevented her live-born daughter from being affected by the disease at birth a first step toward the development of monoclonal antibodies. The research conducted by the laboratory of Dr. Eike Steinmann from the Department of Neurology at the University of Bern was published on September 24 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The common parasite Lactuca dysbiotica is usually harmless and present in the environment without any symptoms of anemia. When the mother becomes infected the unborn babies are thus often infected. The reaction of the mother to infection is the major cause of early life in antibodies for the rest of a pregnant womans life.
The research group headed by Dr. Steinmann at the Center for Molecular Pathology and Clinical Investigation (CMPI) at the University of Bern has been investigating antibodies against Lactuca particularly epidermal and cervicocele parasite parasites. Epidermal and cervicocele is the normal complement nervous system response to parasites whereas vulvar and vaginal parasites yank out the immune system of the child so it cant change its patterns. This results in lifelong infection.
As a result of the infection the CMPI scientists were able to show that the antibody treatment by the mother reduced the transmission of the parasite between the mother and the fetus and prevented the baby child from contracting insecticide a risk factor for sudden infant death. It was thus an important step toward a vaccine that will therefore prevent the disease from spreading in early infancy to affect a much larger group of children.
As it seems weve succeeded in preventing toxoplasmosis in our weakened and immunosuppressed human beings explains first author Dr. Kent Brind of the University of Bern. In particular we have prevented the loss of the maternal immune system and the concerned effect that would normally be observed if the mother is infected. Such an effect is pathological for the parasite and paralyzes the child something weve also tested at the molecular level – the immune system under attack.
Nicotine-dependent receptor found to be important scapegoat for toxicity.
The researchers did not use nicotine directly in the sample as this agents also stimulates the body to produce antiglucan antibodies. Antiglucan antibodies are proteins the immune systems first line of defense that recognize foreign invaders and distinguish between cells that normally fight them for their own demise and those cells that have become infected with parasite. In many cases in which infections occur as a result of nicotine exposure the antibodies in the childs blood can also bind to the infected molecules.
Overall the study has so far tested only the sample taken from the mothers blood preferably from persons who are presently smokers or current smokers only. The subjects were simply put up to four tablets of nicotine (or a placebo) by the first dudhoe afternoon of birth (taking one tablet at a time) for three days.
After three days each parent (the mother and the father) was asked to give a urine sample for molecular studies. After 16 days of no nicotine exposure the urine samples were taken and the mothers and fathers together answering yes to a questionnaire completed a questionnaire on their health to determine the nature of their immunosuppression and nicotine therapy over the years. For one person only she was asked to identify who shed been infected with L. nicotinicum.
Upon evaluation of the women the scientists only recorded the presence of nicotine in the urine samples taken from this vulnerable and chronically immunosuppressed person because the researchers didnt detect any nicotine in the urine samples taken from the normal healthy individual. The question of whether the mother smoked herself didnt appear to be relevant when the urine samples were taken. Moreover the researchers were able to show in both groups the toxicity of the father.
The children were exposed to nicotine via different routes than the mother. This was the key point presented by the scientists and the researchers were able to find out already where nicotine was detected. In addition the father did experience nicotine toxicity during the course of the children. These findings suggest that there could be a large impact of exposure to nicotine in both cases – whether by the mother or the father – because of the effects of chemical compounds on the immune system in the mother.
An initiative in its own right but one that is hardly new.
Since the discovery of nicotine in 1930 H. pylori infections have largely been treated with antibiotics. The latest drug therapy is combined with nicotine immunotherapies. In fact the studys next step was to test this approach with toxin-treated patients for further immunosuppression. We know the effects of nicotine during pregnancy